“The purpose of Anthropology is to make the world safe for human differences.”
Anthropology is one of most scoring, interesting universal optional. It has consistently performing in terms of the scores in mains. Anthropology is considered to be the easiest subject by science students and for students with biology background. The ground reality is not just that it is basically a study of humanity so suitable for all human beings. The subject is adorn with several concepts of science and Humanity to make it a balance optional.
Since Many a facts in anthropology is science oriented, there is often a requisite of answers which are crisp and to the point. There is also usually a need to draw diagram and flowcharts, even maps to prove a point. More than mugging up of plain content it is very important to make sure you get the knack of the content. This particular course of IASBYHEART gives you such added advantage in the course. The next logical step after conceptual clarity and answer writing is to make sure that there is adequate assessment time to time. These are some of the unique features of Anthropology course in our concern.
Another major advantage of anthropology is the fact that it is one of the shortest subject among the optional. After removal of topics like Developmental anthropology, ethnicity and other such topics, it has become an easy optional to get completed on time.
According to the trend, many candidates have obtained good marks and gained the attention of candidates to choose the same as their optional for UPSC IAS Exam. The most vital thing while you select an optional subject should be your interest in it. If you are enthusiastic to learn more about a subject and love reading about it, you should definitely go for that subject.
It is worthwhile to begin anthropology preparation for optional as early as possible after the UPSC prelims examination. Candidates should lead a focused, organized study to complete the subject before the Civil Services Mains examination. IAS by heart anthropology course works in all such lines to achieve the needed victory.
– Comprehensive coverage of syllabus with current updates
– extensive Focus on case study & diagrams
– regular answer writing practice
– online and offline access
Four– pronged integrated approach:
- Concept building with subject-specific vocabulary
- Application of concepts (case studies)
- Contemporary developments (committees and reports)
- One-to-One Mentorship with Faculty will be available regularly.
CONTENTS OF THE COURSE:
- Socio-Cultural Anthropology
- Anthropology Theories And Thinkers
- Indian Anthropology
- Tribal India
- Evolution- Physical And Cultural Evolution
- Biological Anthropology
- 8 Class Tests – 4 Full Length Tests
|class 1||1.1 Meaning, scope and development of Anthropology.
1.2 Relationships with other disciplines: Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities.
1.3 Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance:.
|class 2||2.1- nature of culture,2.2-nature of society, 2.3- marriage|
|class 3||2.3= marriage,2.4-family|
|class 4||2.4- family|
|Class 5||2.5 kinship|
|class 6||2.5 kinship,
3- economic anthropology
|class 7||3- economic anthropology|
|class 8||4- political anthropology|
|class 9||5- religion|
|class 10||5- religion|
|class 11||a. Classical evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan and Frazer)|
|class 12||b. historical particularism and diffusionism|
|class 13||functionalism and structural functionalism|
|class 14||d. structuralism, culture personality school|
|class 15||e. culture personality school|
|class 16||f. neo evolutionism|
|class 17||g. cultural materialism h. symbolic anthropology|
|class 18||cognitive and post modernism|
|class 19||7- linguistic anthropology, 8-reasearch methodology|
|class 20||8 – reasearch methodology|
|class 21||1.4-evolution, 1.5- primates.1.7- cell biology and cycles|
|class 22||1.6- human evolution and fossils|
|class 23||9.1, 9.2,- human genetics|
|class 24||9.3,9.4,9.5- human genetics|
|class 25||9.6,9.7,9.8- human genetics|
|class 26||10- Human growth and development|
|class 27||11,12- applied anthropology|
|class 28||paper 1- 1.8, paper 2 1.1 – archaeological anthropology|
|class 29||1.2,1.3,2- Indian anthropology|
|class 30||3- Indian anthropology|
|class 31||4- Indian thinkers|
|class 32||5.1,5.2- village studies|
|class 33||6.1,6.2,6.3- tribal anthro|
|class 34||6.3 7.1- tribal anthro|
|class 35||8.1,8.2- tribal anthro|
|class 36||9.1- tribal anthro|
|class 37||9.2,9.3- tribal anthro|
JULY 17 2022
1.1 Meaning, scope and development of Anthropology.
1.2 Relationships with other disciplines: Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities.
1.3 Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance:
1.4 Social- cultural Anthropology.
1.5 Biological Anthropology.
1.6 Archaeological Anthropology.
1.7 Linguistic Anthropology.
1.8 Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology. Chronology: Relative and Absolute Dating methods.
1.9 Cultural Evolution- Broad Outlines of Prehistoric cultures:
- Copper-Bronze Age
- Iron Age
1.1 Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization— Prehistoric (Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic and Neolithic – Chalcolithic). Protohistoric (Indus Civilization): Pre- Harappan, Harappan and post Harappancultures. Contributions of tribal cultures to Indian civilization.
1.2 Palaeo – anthropological evidence from India with special reference to Siwaliks and Narmada basin (Ramapithecus, Sivapithecus and Narmada Man).
1.3 Ethno-archaeology in India: The concept of ethnoarchaeology; Survivals and Parallels among the hunting, foraging, fishing, pastoral and peasant communities including arts and crafts producing communities.
TEST – 2
24 JULY, 2022
1.4 Human Evolution and emergence of Man:
- Biological and Cultural factors in human evolution.
- Theories of Organic Evolution (Pre- Darwinian, Darwinian and Post-Darwinian).
- Synthetic theory of evolution; Brief outline of terms and concepts of evolutionary biology (Doll’s rule, Cope’s rule, Gause’s rule, parallelism, convergence, adaptive radiation, and mosaic evolution).
1.5 Characteristics of Primates; Evolutionary Trend and Primate Taxonomy; Primate Adaptations; (Arboreal and Terrestrial) Primate Taxonomy; Primate Behaviour; Tertiary and Quaternary fossil primates; Living Major Primates; Comparative Anatomy of Man and Apes; Skeletal changes due to erect posture and its implications.
1.6 Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution of the following:
- Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities.
- Homo erectus: Africa (Paranthropus), Europe (Homo erectus heidelbergensis), Asia (Homo erectus javanicus, Homo erectus pekinensis).
- Neanderthal Man- La-Chapelle-aux-saints (Classical type), Mt. Carmel (Progressive type).
- Rhodesian man.
- Homo sapiens — Cromagn on,Grimaldi and Chancelade.
1.7 The biological basis of life: The Cell, DNA structure and replication, Protein Synthesis, Gene, Mutation, Chromosomes, and Cell Division.
9.1 Human Genetics – Methods and Application: Methods for study of genetic principles in manfamily study (pedigree analysis, twin study, foster child, co-twin method, cytogenetic method, chromosomal and karyo-type analysis), biochemical methods, immunological methods, D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies.
9.2 Mendelian genetics in man-family study, single factor, multifactor, lethal, sub-lethal and polygenic inheritance in man.
9.3 Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population, HardyWeinberg law; causes and changes which bring down frequency – mutation, isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding and genetic drift. Consanguineous and non consanguineous mating, genetic load, genetic effect of consanguineous and cousin marriages.
9.4 Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man methodology. Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders). Sex chromosomal aberrations – Klinefelter (XXY), Turner (XO), Super female (XXX), intersex and other syndromic disorders. Autosomal aberrations – Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and Cri-du-chat syndromes. Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic screening, genetic counseling, human DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome study.
TEST – 3
31 JULY, 2022
9.5 Race and racism, biological basis of morphological variation of non-metric and metric characters. Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to heredity and environment; biological basis of racial classification, racial differentiation and race crossing in man.
9.6 Age, sex and population variation as genetic markerABO, Rh blood groups, HLAHp, transferring, Gm, blood enzymes. Physiological characteristics-Hb level, body fat, pulse rate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in different cultural and socio-economic groups.
9.7 Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology. Bio-cultural Adaptations – Genetic and Nongenetic factors. Man’s physiological responses to environmental stresses: hot desert, cold, high altitude climate.
9.8 Epidemiological Anthropology: Health and disease. Infectious and non-infectious diseases. Nutritional deficiency related diseases.
10. Concept of human growth and development: stages of growth – prenatal, natal, infant, childhood, adolescence, maturity, senescence. Factors affecting growth and development genetic, environmental, biochemical, nutritional, cultural and socio-economic. Ageing and senescence. Theories and observations – biological and chronological longevity. Human physique and somatotypes. Methodologies for growth studies.
11.1 Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bio events to fertility. Fertility patterns and differentials.
11.2 Demographic theories- biological, social and cultural.
11.3 Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility, natality and mortality.
12. Applications of Anthropology: Anthropology of sports, Nutritional Anthropology, Anthropology in designing of defence and other equipments, Forensic Anthropology, Methods and principles of personal identification and reconstruction, Applied human genetics – Paternity diagnosis, genetic counseling and eugenics, DNA technology in diseases and medicine, serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology.
TEST – 4
2.1 The Nature of Culture: The concept and characteristics of culture and civilization; Ethnocentrism vis-à-vis cultural Relativism.
2.2 The Nature of Society: Concept of Society; Society and Culture; Social Institutions; Social groups; and Social stratification.
2.3 Marriage: Definition and universality; Laws of marriage (endogamy, exogamy, hypergamy, hypogamy, incest taboo); Types of marriage (monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, group marriage).
Functions of marriage; Marriage regulations (preferential, prescriptive and proscriptive); Marriage payments (bride wealth and dowry).
2.4 Family: Definition and universality; Family, household and domestic groups; functions of family; Types of family (from the perspectives of structure, blood relation, marriage, residence and succession); Impact of urbanization, industrialization and feminist movements on family.
2.5 Kinship: Consanguinity and Affinity; Principles and types of descent (Unilineal, Double, Bilateral, Ambilineal); Forms of descent groups (lineage, clan, phratry, moiety and kindred); Kinship terminology (descriptive and classificatory); Descent, Filiation and Complementary Filiation; Descent and Alliance.
3.Economic organization: Meaning, scope and relevance of economic anthropology; Formalist and Substantivist debate; Principles governing production,distribution and exchange (reciprocity, redistribution and market), in communities, subsisting on hunting and gathering, fishing, swiddening, pastoralism, horticulture, and agriculture; globalization and indigenous economic systems.
4.Political organization and Social Control: Band, tribe, chiefdom, kingdom and state; concepts of power, authority and legitimacy; social control, law and justice in simple societies.
5.Religion: Anthropological approaches to the study of religion (evolutionary, psychological and functional); monotheism and polytheism; sacred and profane; myths and rituals; forms of religion in tribal and peasant societies (animism, animatism, fetishism, naturism and totemism); religion, magic and science distinguished; magico religious functionaries (priest, shaman, medicine man, sorcerer and witch).
TEST – 5
14 AUGUST, 2022
6. Anthropological theories:
a. Classical evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan and Frazer)
b. Historical particularism (Boas); Diffusion-ism (British, German and American)
c. Functionalism (Malinowski); Structural functionalism (Radcliffe-Brown)
d. Structuralism (L’evi – Strauss and E. Leach)
e. Culture and personality (Benedict, Mead, Linton, Kardiner and Cora – duBois)
f. Neo – evolutionism (Childe, White, Steward, Sahlins and Service) Cultural materialism (Harris)
g. Symbolic and interpretive theories (Turner, Schneider and Geertz) Cognitive theories (Tyler, Conklin)
h. Post- modernism in anthropology
7. Culture, language and communication: Nature, origin and characteristics of language; verbal and non-verbal communication; social context of language use.
8. Research methods in anthropology: Fieldwork tradition in anthropology Distinction between technique, method and methodology Tools of data collection: observation, interview, schedules, questionnaire, Case study, genealogy, life-history, oral history, secondary sources of information, participatory methods. Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.
TEST – 6
21 AUGUST, 2022
2.Demographic profile of India — Ethnic and linguistic elements in the Indian population and their distribution. Indian population – factors influencing its structure and growth.
3.1 The structure and nature of the traditional Indian social system — Varnashrama, Purushartha, Karma, Rina and Rebirth.
3.2 Caste system in India- structure and characteristics, Varna and caste, Theories of origin of caste system, Dominant caste, Caste mobility, Future of caste system, Jajmani system, Tribe- caste
3.3 Sacred Complex and Nature- Man- Spirit Complex.
3.4 Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity on Indian society.
4. Emergence and growth of anthropology in India Contributions of the 18th, 19th and early 20th Century scholar-administrators. Contributions of Indian anthropologists to tribal and caste studies.
5.1 Indian Village: Significance of village study in India; Indian village as a social system; Traditional and changing patterns of settlement and inter-caste relations; Agrarian relations in Indian villages; Impact of globalization on Indian villages.
5.2 Linguistic and religious minorities and their social, political and economic status.
5.3 Indigenous and exogenous processes of sociocultural change in Indian society: Sanskritization, Westernization, Modernization; Inter-play of little and great traditions; Panchayati raj and social change; Media and social change.
TEST – 7
27 AUG, 2022
6.1 Tribal situation in India – Bio-genetic variability, linguistic and socio-economic characteristics of tribal populations and their distribution.
6.2 Problems of the tribal Communities — land alienation, poverty, indebtedness, low literacy, poor educational facilities, unemployment, underemployment, health and nutrition.
6.3 Developmental projects and their impact on tribal displacement and problems of rehabilitation. Development of forest policy and tribals. Impact of urbanization and industrialization on tribal
7.1 Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes.
7.2 Social change and contemporary tribal societies: Impact of modern democratic institutions, development programmes and welfare measures on tribals and weaker sections.
7.3 The concept of ethnicity; Ethnic conflicts and political developments; Unrest among tribal communities; Regionalism and demand for autonomy; Pseudotribalism; Social change among the tribes during colonial and post-Independent India.
TEST – 8
28 AUGUST, 2022
8.1 Impact of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and other religions on tribal societies.
8.2 Tribe and nation state – a comparative study of tribal communities in India and other countries.
9.1 History of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies, plans, programmes of tribal development and their implementation. The concept of PTGs (Primitive Tribal Groups), their distribution, special programmes for their development. Role of N.G.O.s in tribal development.
9.2 Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development.
9.3 Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of regionalism, communalism, and ethnic and political movements.
TEST – 9
4 SEP, 2022 Paper 1 (Full length)
TEST – 10
4 SEP, 2022 Paper 2 (Full length)
TEST – 11
11 SEP, 2022 Paper 1 (Full length)
TEST – 12
11 SEP, 2022 Paper 2 (Full length)